2) rote count
3) count using one to one correspondence
4) have a conceptual understanding to use cardinal numbers
Let's DO some Math!
Activity 1(rational counting: subtraction)
With a small cup of beans (preferably bigger sized beans), play a game with a child or you can also have them play in pairs.
At every turn, each player should take out at least 1 OR 2 beans. The number can be increased gradually depending on child's readiness. The aim is to count it down to zero and the person who counts it down to zero wins!
For example, start off with 12 beans and take out 2 beans from it. Using rational counting, count the leftover beans and let the child know there is 10 left. If child takes 1 bean out, she will then need to use rational counting and identify 9 beans left. Go on with the game until zero beans are left. The trick to this game is finding out which are GOOD numbers to win this game and which are BAD. If there are 4 beans left, how many should you take in order to win the game? If you take 2, the child wins by taking out the remaining 2. If you take 1 and the child takes 2, you will win with the remaining 1 bean. Hence, 4 is a good number to win. Just remember to take 1 bean out and not 2;). It's quite fun once you know the GOOD and BAD numbers.
Activity 2 (Part and Whole Numbers)
Here is another fun math activity you can do with your child based on red beans and ten frames. You can buy of create your own ten frames.
With this number of beans in each frame, come up with as many ways to count the total number of beans. Some ways are:
1) rote counting
2) making sets of 10s
3) making sets of 5s
Have your child explore and come up with more ways? Explore the possibilities of more than one way to a correct answer.
You can also try it this way:)